An MDI (Multiple Document Interface) parent frame is a window which can contain MDI child frames in its own `desktop'. It is a convenient way to avoid window clutter, and is used in many popular Windows applications, such as Microsoft Word(TM).

Derived from


Include files



There may be multiple MDI parent frames in a single application, but this probably only makes sense within programming development environments.

Child frames may be of class wxMDIChildFrame (contained within the parent frame) or wxFrame (shown as a top-level frame).

An MDI parent frame always has a wxMDIClientWindow associated with it, which is the parent for MDI client frames. This client window may be resized to accommodate non-MDI windows, as seen in Microsoft Visual C++ (TM) and Microsoft Publisher (TM), where a documentation window is placed to one side of the workspace.

MDI remains popular despite dire warnings from Microsoft itself that MDI is an obsolete user interface style.

The implementation is native in Windows, and simulated under Motif. Under Motif, the child window frames will often have a different appearance from other frames because the window decorations are simulated.

Window styles

wxCAPTION Puts a caption on the frame.
wxHSCROLL Displays a horizontal scrollbar in the client window, allowing the user to view child frames that are off the current view.
wxICONIZE Display the frame iconized (minimized) (Windows only).
wxMAXIMIZE Displays the frame maximized (Windows only).
wxMAXIMIZE_BOX Displays a maximize box on the frame (Windows and Motif only).
wxMINIMIZE Identical to wxICONIZE.
wxMINIMIZE_BOX Displays a minimize box on the frame (Windows and Motif only).
wxRESIZE_BORDER Displays a resizeable border around the window (Motif only; for Windows, it is implicit in wxTHICK_FRAME).
wxSTAY_ON_TOP Stay on top of other windows (Windows only).
wxSYSTEM_MENU Displays a system menu (Windows and Motif only).
wxTHICK_FRAME Displays a thick frame around the window (Windows and Motif only).
wxVSCROLL Displays a vertical scrollbar in the client window, allowing the user to view child frames that are off the current view.
wxFRAME_NO_WINDOW_MENU Under Windows, removes the Window menu that is normally added automatically.

See also window styles overview.

See also

wxMDIChildFrame, wxMDIClientWindow, wxFrame, wxDialog



Default constructor.

wxMDIParentFrame(wxWindow* parent, wxWindowID id, const wxString& title, const wxPoint& pos = wxDefaultPosition, const wxSize& size = wxDefaultSize, long style = wxDEFAULT_FRAME_STYLE || wxVSCROLL || wxHSCROLL, const wxString& name = ``frame")

Constructor, creating the window.


The window parent. This should be NULL.

The window identifier. It may take a value of -1 to indicate a default value.

The caption to be displayed on the frame's title bar.

The window position. A value of (-1, -1) indicates a default position, chosen by either the windowing system or wxWidgets, depending on platform.

The window size. A value of (-1, -1) indicates a default size, chosen by either the windowing system or wxWidgets, depending on platform.

The window style. See wxMDIParentFrame.

The name of the window. This parameter is used to associate a name with the item, allowing the application user to set Motif resource values for individual windows.


During the construction of the frame, the client window will be created. To use a different class from wxMDIClientWindow, override wxMDIParentFrame::OnCreateClient.

Under Windows 95, the client window will automatically have a sunken border style when the active child is not maximized, and no border style when a child is maximized.

See also

wxMDIParentFrame::Create, wxMDIParentFrame::OnCreateClient



Destructor. Destroys all child windows and menu bar if present.


void ActivateNext(void)

Activates the MDI child following the currently active one.

See also



void ActivatePrevious(void)

Activates the MDI child preceding the currently active one.

See also



void ArrangeIcons(void)

Arranges any iconized (minimized) MDI child windows.

See also

wxMDIParentFrame::Cascade, wxMDIParentFrame::Tile


void Cascade(void)

Arranges the MDI child windows in a cascade.

See also

wxMDIParentFrame::Tile, wxMDIParentFrame::ArrangeIcons


bool Create(wxWindow* parent, wxWindowID id, const wxString& title, const wxPoint& pos = wxDefaultPosition, const wxSize& size = wxDefaultSize, long style = wxDEFAULT_FRAME_STYLE || wxVSCROLL || wxHSCROLL, const wxString& name = ``frame")

Used in two-step frame construction. See wxMDIParentFrame::wxMDIParentFrame for further details.


virtual void GetClientSize(int* width, int* height) const

This gets the size of the frame `client area' in pixels.


Receives the client width in pixels.

Receives the client height in pixels.


The client area is the area which may be drawn on by the programmer, excluding title bar, border, status bar, and toolbar if present.

If you wish to manage your own toolbar (or perhaps you have more than one), provide an OnSize event handler. Call GetClientSize to find how much space there is for your windows and don't forget to set the size and position of the MDI client window as well as your toolbar and other windows (but not the status bar).

If you have set a toolbar with wxMDIParentFrame::SetToolbar, the client size returned will have subtracted the toolbar height. However, the available positions for the client window and other windows of the frame do not start at zero - you must add the toolbar height.

The position and size of the status bar and toolbar (if known to the frame) are always managed by wxMDIParentFrame, regardless of what behaviour is defined in your OnSize event handler. However, the client window position and size are always set in OnSize, so if you override this event handler, make sure you deal with the client window.

You do not have to manage the size and position of MDI child windows, since they are managed automatically by the client window.

See also

wxMDIParentFrame::GetToolBar, wxMDIParentFrame::SetToolBar, wxMDIClientWindow

wxPython での注意点: The wxPython version of this method takes no arguments and returns a tuple containing width and height.


wxMDIChildFrame* GetActiveChild(void) const

Returns a pointer to the active MDI child, if there is one.


wxMDIClientWindow* GetClientWindow(void) const

Returns a pointer to the client window.

See also



virtual wxWindow* GetToolBar(void) const

Returns the window being used as the toolbar for this frame.

See also



wxMenu* GetWindowMenu(void) const

Returns the current Window menu (added by wxWidgets to the menubar). This function is available under Windows only.


virtual wxMDIClientWindow* OnCreateClient(void)

Override this to return a different kind of client window. If you override this function, you must create your parent frame in two stages, or your function will never be called, due to the way C++ treats virtual functions called from constructors. For example:

  frame = new MyParentFrame;
  frame->Create(parent, myParentFrameId, wxT("My Parent Frame"));


You might wish to derive from wxMDIClientWindow in order to implement different erase behaviour, for example, such as painting a bitmap on the background.

Note that it is probably impossible to have a client window that scrolls as well as painting a bitmap or pattern, since in OnScroll, the scrollbar positions always return zero. (Solutions to: julian.smart@btopenworld.com).

See also

wxMDIParentFrame::GetClientWindow, wxMDIClientWindow


virtual void SetToolBar(wxWindow* toolbar)

Sets the window to be used as a toolbar for this MDI parent window. It saves the application having to manage the positioning of the toolbar MDI client window.


Toolbar to manage.


When the frame is resized, the toolbar is resized to be the width of the frame client area, and the toolbar height is kept the same.

The parent of the toolbar must be this frame.

If you wish to manage your own toolbar (or perhaps you have more than one), don't call this function, and instead manage your subwindows and the MDI client window by providing an OnSize event handler. Call wxMDIParentFrame::GetClientSize to find how much space there is for your windows.

Note that SDI (normal) frames and MDI child windows must always have their toolbars managed by the application.

See also

wxMDIParentFrame::GetToolBar, wxMDIParentFrame::GetClientSize


void SetWindowMenu(wxMenu* menu)

Call this to change the current Window menu. Ownership of the menu object passes to the frame when you call this function.

This call is available under Windows only.

To remove the window completely, use the wxFRAME_NO_WINDOW_MENU window style.


void Tile(wxOrientation orient = wxHORIZONTAL)

Tiles the MDI child windows either horizontally or vertically depending on whether orient is wxHORIZONTAL or wxVERTICAL.

Currently only implemented for MSW, does nothing under the other platforms.

See also

wxMDIParentFrame::Cascade, wxMDIParentFrame::ArrangeIcons

ymasuda 平成17年11月19日