How events are processed

When an event is received from the windowing system, wxWidgets calls wxEvtHandler::ProcessEvent on the first event handler object belonging to the window generating the event.

It may be noted that wxWidgets' event processing system implements something very close to virtual methods in normal C++, i.e. it is possible to alter the behaviour of a class by overriding its event handling functions. In many cases this works even for changing the behaviour of native controls. For example it is possible to filter out a number of key events sent by the system to a native text control by overriding wxTextCtrl and defining a handler for key events using EVT_KEY_DOWN. This would indeed prevent any key events from being sent to the native control - which might not be what is desired. In this case the event handler function has to call Skip() so as to indicate that the search for the event handler should continue.

To summarize, instead of explicitly calling the base class version as you would have done with C++ virtual functions (i.e. wxTextCtrl::OnChar()), you should instead call Skip.

In practice, this would look like this if the derived text control only accepts 'a' to 'z' and 'A' to 'Z':

void MyTextCtrl::OnChar(wxKeyEvent& event)
{
    if ( isalpha( event.KeyCode() ) )
    {
       // key code is within legal range. we call event.Skip() so the
       // event can be processed either in the base wxWidgets class
       // or the native control.

       event.Skip();
    }
    else
    {
       // illegal key hit. we don't call event.Skip() so the
       // event is not processed anywhere else.

       wxBell();
    }
}

The normal order of event table searching by ProcessEvent is as follows:

  1. If the object is disabled (via a call to wxEvtHandler::SetEvtHandlerEnabled) the function skips to step (6).
  2. If the object is a wxWindow, ProcessEvent is recursively called on the window's wxValidator. If this returns true, the function exits.
  3. SearchEventTable is called for this event handler. If this fails, the base class table is tried, and so on until no more tables exist or an appropriate function was found, in which case the function exits.
  4. The search is applied down the entire chain of event handlers (usually the chain has a length of one). If this succeeds, the function exits.
  5. If the object is a wxWindow and the event is set to set to propagate (in the library only wxCommandEvent based events are set to propagate), ProcessEvent is recursively applied to the parent window's event handler. If this returns true, the function exits.
  6. Finally, ProcessEvent is called on the wxApp object.

Pay close attention to Step 5. People often overlook or get confused by this powerful feature of the wxWidgets event processing system. To put it a different way, events set to propagate (See: wxEvent::ShouldPropagate) (most likely derived either directly or indirectly from wxCommandEvent) will travel up the containment hierarchy from child to parent until the maximal propagation level is reached or an event handler is found that doesn't call event.Skip().

Finally, there is another additional complication (which, in fact, simplifies life of wxWidgets programmers significantly): when propagating the command events upwards to the parent window, the event propagation stops when it reaches the parent dialog, if any. This means that you don't risk to get unexpected events from the dialog controls (which might be left unprocessed by the dialog itself because it doesn't care about them) when a modal dialog is popped up. The events do propagate beyond the frames, however. The rationale for this choice is that there are only a few frames in a typical application and their parent-child relation are well understood by the programmer while it may be very difficult, if not impossible, to track down all the dialogs which may be popped up in a complex program (remember that some are created automatically by wxWidgets). If you need to specify a different behaviour for some reason, you can use SetExtraStyle(wxWS_EX_BLOCK_EVENTS) explicitly to prevent the events from being propagated beyond the given window or unset this flag for the dialogs which have it on by default.

Typically events that deal with a window as a window (size, motion, paint, mouse, keyboard, etc.) are sent only to the window. Events that have a higher level of meaning and/or are generated by the window itself, (button click, menu select, tree expand, etc.) are command events and are sent up to the parent to see if it is interested in the event.

Note that your application may wish to override ProcessEvent to redirect processing of events. This is done in the document/view framework, for example, to allow event handlers to be defined in the document or view. To test for command events (which will probably be the only events you wish to redirect), you may use wxEvent::IsCommandEvent for efficiency, instead of using the slower run-time type system.

As mentioned above, only command events are recursively applied to the parents event handler in the library itself. As this quite often causes confusion for users, here is a list of system events which will NOT get sent to the parent's event handler:

wxEvent The event base class
wxActivateEvent A window or application activation event
wxCloseEvent A close window or end session event
wxEraseEvent An erase background event
wxFocusEvent A window focus event
wxKeyEvent A keypress event
wxIdleEvent An idle event
wxInitDialogEvent A dialog initialisation event
wxJoystickEvent A joystick event
wxMenuEvent A menu event
wxMouseEvent A mouse event
wxMoveEvent A move event
wxPaintEvent A paint event
wxQueryLayoutInfoEvent Used to query layout information
wxSetCursorEvent Used for special cursor processing based on current mouse position
wxSizeEvent A size event
wxScrollWinEvent A scroll event sent by a scrolled window (not a scroll bar)
wxSysColourChangedEvent A system colour change event

In some cases, it might be desired by the programmer to get a certain number of system events in a parent window, for example all key events sent to, but not used by, the native controls in a dialog. In this case, a special event handler will have to be written that will override ProcessEvent() in order to pass all events (or any selection of them) to the parent window.

ymasuda 平成17年11月19日